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Saturday, October 1, 2016

History of Nepal

admin     12:53 AM  No comments

Nepal has interesting history.let me tell you in details. 

Many dynasties ruled over nepal within the beyond.it is believed that the gopal dynasty changed into the first.in sanskrit cross way cow and pal approach gentle.as a result,the gopals came from mathura,india,with lord krishna inside the silver age(dwaper age).they established pashupatinath and worshipped him.with their arrival,            

Mahishpals who succeeded the Gopals ruled Nepal for 161 years.Mahish in sanskriti means buffalo and pal means tender.They also came from Mathura after the Gopals.They were also called Ahirs.They were engaged in agriculture and animal hudbandry.

The kirants came and overthrew the Mahishpals,and ruled Nepal for some 1,225 years.They occupy a prominent place among the indigenous people of Nepal.Many religious texts like the Mahabharata,Vedas,Ramayana,Puranas including other ancient literature like kautiliya’s Arthasatra have mentioned about the kirants.

the primary kirant king became yalambar.the kirants were of mongolian stock.they worshiped lord shiva inside the shape of kiranteswar mahadev.additionally they worshiped snakes,cats,monkeys,eagles,trees,rivers,stones and so forth.it indicates that they believed in nature worship.their holy book changed into known as mundhum.they performed their rites and rituals in step with their mundhum.language and script improvement during their rule.that they had their own script it.by the point of the kirant rule,a partriarchic society changed into hooked up in nepal though their ladies oldsters fought along guys in the course of the battle.

              After the kirants came the Lichhavis.Among the inhabitants of ancient Nepal,they were a civilized and cultured race.They are said to be the first Aryans to rule Nepal.Supashpa,the first Lichhavi ruler,founded the Lichchhavi dynasty.Many Lichchhavi kings ruled in their eight centuries of dynastic succession Mandev and Amshuverma were other famous rulers of the Lichchhavi period.In many stone and metals plates of the Lichhavi period,one finds the language of the kiranti period like hamhu,kumhu,sing,gu etc.in use.

             During the Lichhavi period,language ,script and culture were further refined.The lichhavi rulers took great interest in the welfare and prosperity of the people.The health of the people was given priority;health centers were built.The Lichhavi had a patriarchal society where women were respected.Women worked like men in the affairs of the state.They were also given full freedom in education and religion.In the Lichhavi period,joint family system was in practice.If any one was caught for theft,murder or seditious act,his entire family was penalized in those days.Amshuverma put a halt to this practice,and only the guilty was punished.
 
  Man behind Nepal unification and their history

    Prithvi Narayan Shah gave stability to the unification of Nepal.Prithvi Narayan Shah was born on 27th of Poush,1779BS (7th of jan 1723 AD) in Gorkha.Gorkha was quite powerful among the chaubise States of Gandaki region.He was enthroned after the demise of King Naraphupal Shah in 1799 BS.In a decicated efforts to fulfil the dreams of his father,King Prithvi Narayan Shah for the first attempt attacked Nuwakot in 1800 BS.However,he lost.On this account,he diverted his attention to empowering the military force.
                  He,with ammunitions,guns,gunpowder,etc.came back to Gorkha from Varanasi (Banaras).Then Nuwakot was under Kathmandu.It protection was monitored and supervised by Jayanta Rana.Jayanta Rana was previously the army head of Narabhupal Shah.After the first defeat of Gorkha with Nuwakot,he took asylum in Kathmandu and Jay Parkash Malla deputed him to govern over Nuwakot.Jayanta Rana had visited Kathmandu when Gorkha made an attack at Nuwakot for the second time.Jayanta Rana had handed the responsibility of the security of Nuwakot to his son Sankhami Rana before his visit to kathmandu.Meantime,Gorkhalis killed Sankhamani Rana during the conquest of Nuwakot.
                     An attack was made at Belkot after the conquest of Nuwakot.In this course of time,Jayanta Rana had returned to Belkot from Kathmandu.He was apprehended and dispatched in this Belkot fight.After triumph over Nuwakot,Prithvi Narayan Shah planned to attack Kathmandu Valley.He captured Farping,Pandey gawn,Sunagawn,Khokhna and other villages.Later,he attacked Kirtipur.The three Malla States combated with the Gorkhalis.Kalu Pandey was butchered in this battle.The Gorkhalis did not have any choice except for surrender.Prithvi Narayan Shah did not concede even after this defeat.Fight was rampant between the kingdoms of the Kathmandu Valley.In  the meantime Prithvi Narayan Shah seized Palanchowk,Shivapuri,Kavrekot and Kavilashpur taking advantage of the disunity of the valley kings.On account of existence of trail from Makwanpur to Kathmandu Valley to export goods Prithivi Narayan Shah began an attack at Makwanpur.King Digbandhan Sen of Makwanpur absconded from the raid.Makwanpur was by far captured.The military force of Nawab Mirkasim of Bengal,as a guard for defense of Makwanpur King,detailed in the supervision of Gurgin Khan,also submitted  Moreover,the Gorkhali troops took over Hariharpur.
                      King Digbandhan Sen of Makwanpur and his family were captured.Under the supervision of Sur Pratap, Shah the Gorkhali troops attacked Kritipur.However,they became unsuccessful again.After a huge military training,Prithivi Narayan Shah raided over Kritipur.He was able to capture Kritipur.Prithivi Narayan Shah cut off the facial parts of fifteen Kritipure for the death of few Gorkhalis caused by them.

                 King Jay Prakash Malla of Kathmandu sought assistance from the British India Company to defeat Gorkhali troops.The British came with the armed force to fight against Gorkhalis.After the British force went back,the Gorkhalis proceeded ahead to conquer Kathmandu valley.On the day of Indra Jatra,the Gorkhalis conquered Kathmandu.Finally,King Jay Prakash Malla went to King Tej Narsingh Malla of Patan.After the seize over patan by the Gorkhalis ,King Tej Narsingh Malla of Patan and King Jay Prakash Malla fo Kathmandu went to Bhaktapur for security.
Despite the letter sent by Prithivi Narayan Shah to King Ranjeet Malla asking him not give asylum to Jay Prakash Malla and Tej Narsingh,Ranjeet Malla refused for three consecutive days and this resulted in the slaughter of 1700 soldiers of Bhaktapur and 50 soldiers of the Gorkhali troops.In fact,King Ranjeet Malla was the blood brother(Meet Baa) of Prithivi Narayan Shah’s father.Finally,King of war in Laxmipur where he passed away.As per his wish,Prithivi Narayan Shah made arrangements for Tej Narsingh Malla to burn his dead body in Arya Ghat.the Gorkhalis after the conquest of three Malla States headed towards West to invade the Chaubise Rajyas,However in Tanahun battel the Gorkhalis had to suffer failure.

                           In the east,Bijaypur and Chaudandi States were powerful.Nevertheless,the Gorkhalis with remarkable gallantry subjugated Chaudandi.The Gorkhalis maintained the annexation to Bijaypur across Koshi,which resulted Nepal’s unification up to Tista River.
Thus, Prithivi Narayan Shah extended “Nepal to Mechi river in the east,Tibet in the North,Bihar(India) in the South.Prithivi Narayan Shah passed away on Magh 1,1811 BS.


 After the death of King prithvi Narayan shah......


                The Regency of Queen Rajendra Laxmi
After the death of Prithivi Narayan Shah ,his descendants gave continuity to his unification campaign.His son Pratap Singh Shah became the king and he was successful to extend the territory of Nepal upto Kavilashpur,Upardand Gandhi,Sumeswor-Godhi and Chitwan .Pratap Singh Shah untimely passed away.After his death his small son Rana Bahadur Shah,two and half years old,was put into throne.He was too young to handle the political matters and govern of the country.So,his mother Rajendra Laxmi took over the power and became the regent.She also could not proceed on with the political efficiency herself.She asked a favour from her brother-in-law Bahadur Shah who was residing at Betia of India at that time.when Rajendra Laxmi called him back he came to Nepal and ruled the country jointly for five months.Later,he had a misunderstanding with Rajendra Laxmi in the matter of his intension to annex Tanahun state.Therefore he again returned to Betia.Having learned their misunderstanding Parbat,Lamjung and Tanahun states united together and attacked on Gorkha in January of 1780 AD.However,the Gorkhali troops under Amar Singh Thapa defeated them.During the region of Rajendra Laxmi,She was in the mission of western unification so,She sent Gorkhali troops to invade Tanahun under  the leadership of Amar Singh Thapa,Bansraj Pandey,Damodar Pandey and Balvadra Kunwar.The state of Kaski also suffered a heavy loss of Gorkhali’s attack over Tanahun.Because of the Kaski estates act of treachery,24 states were deafeated by the Gorkhali troops.Parbat did not digest the act of kaski,so declared war against kaski and made a fierce attack.In such a situation Kaski sought help from Gorkha.Both Kaski and Gorkhali  troops combinedly fought against Parbat.This was a devastating battle .Parbat suffered a heavy loss in this battle.After defeating Parbat the Gorkhali troop which was under the leadership of Bansraj Pandey withdrew from the battle field.After sometime Gorkhali troops were again heading to conquer Parbat and Palpa,meantime Kaski attacked Lamjung.Later the success was in the side of Gorkhali troops who kept on capturing pallo Nuwakot.Garhun,Rasing,Virkot,Satahun etc.Within a year all 24 states were annexed to Gorkha Kingdom.It was obivious that Rajendra Laxmi played a vital role under her regency in the unification campaign of 24 states.It was misfortune that Rajendra Laxmi passed away on 2nd Shrawan,1842 BS.

                             After the demise of Rajendra Laxmi,Bahadur Shah returned to Nepal and acted as a regent on behalf of the minor King Rana Bahadur Shah.The annexation of Palpa and Parbat was still incomplete so he intended to conquere other states also including palpa and Parbat and make bigger Nepal.For this purpose he tied a matrimonial Knot with the daughter of King Mahadutta Sen.This relation became a significant gateway on the way to unification .In 1843 BS Bahadur Shah invaded Arghakhanchi,Durkot and Gulmi.Parbat was also annexed into Nepal in Ashwin the same year.Being encouraged with the annexation,Bahadur Shah wished to unify more states of western part so he sent Gorkhali troops to Pyuthan,Dang,Rolpa and were captured.At the same time Jajarkot came under the rule of Nepal.In this way Bahadur Shah was able to annex 24 and 22 states of Gandaki and Karnali region into greater Nepal.Then his attention was attracted to western Kumaoun and Godhawal beyond Mahakali river.Under the leadership of Amarshing  Thapa,being gallant,headed to invade kumaoun and Godhawal.

                     On account of Bahadur Shah’s successful Leadership,Nepali troops exceeded with their expectation.Under the leadership of Amar Singh Thapa,the Nepali troops seized Dailekh,Achham including Tarimghat and Surkhet.After the conquest over Almoda across Mahakali river Nepali troops captured Alanknanda region without armed attack.However,to conquer Alaknanda,Gorkhali troops had to fight with King Gadawali .Nepali troops reached up to Alaknanda after signing a treaty with the new government of Kumaun.Gorkhali troops took over Almoda;Kingdom of the new government of Kumaunon 11 th Chaitra,1847 BS and Kingdom of Gadhawal on 12 th Ashadh,1848 BS.
Thus,Bahadur Shah made great contributions in Nepal’s Unification Campaingn.Beginning from Prithivi Naraayna Shah,the Unification Campaign continued until Bahadur Shah’s regency or governance.It is natural for any Nepali to sympathize with the fact that along with the growth of Ran Bahadur shah,he imprisoned Bahadur Shah on the charge of treason.However,Bahadur Shah was farsighted,politician,efficient administrator,patriot and an able son.

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