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Tuesday, September 13, 2016

Geography of Nepal

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Geography of Nepal



A map of Nepal.

A topographic map of Nepal.

Nepal map of Köppen climate classification.
Nepal is of approximately trapezoidal shape, 800 kilometres (497 mi) long and two hundred kilometres (124 mi) huge, with a place of 147,181 km2 (56,827 squaremi). see list of territories by way of size for the comparative size of nepal. it lies among latitudes 26° and 31°n, and longitudes eighty° and 89°e.

Nepal is commonly divided into three physiographic areas: Mountain, Hill and Terai. These ecological belts run east-west and are vertically intersected by Nepal's major, north to south flowing river systems.

The southern lowland plains or Terai bordering India are part of the northern rim of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. They were formed and are fed by three major Himalayan
rivers: the Kosi, the Narayani, and theKarnali as well as smaller rivers rising below the permanent snowline. This region has a subtropical to tropical climate. The outermost range of foothills called Sivalik Hills or Churia Range cresting at 700 to 1,000 metres (2,297 to 3,281 ft) marks the limit of the Gangetic Plain, however broad, low valleys called Inner Tarai Valleys (Bhitri Tarai Uptyaka) lie north of these foothills in several places.

The Hill Region (Pahad) abuts the mountains and varies from 800 to 4,000 metres (2,625 to 13,123 ft) in altitude with progression from subtropical climates below 1,200 metres (3,937 ft) to alpine climates above 3,600 metres (11,811 ft). The Lower Himalayan Range reaching 1,500 to 3,000 metres (4,921 to 9,843 ft) is the southern limit of this region, with subtropical river valleys and "hills" alternating to the north of this range. Population density is high in valleys but notably less above 2,000 metres (6,562 ft) and very low above 2,500 metres (8,202 ft) where snow occasionally falls in winter.

The Mountain Region (Himal), situated in the Great Himalayan Range, makes up the northern part of Nepal. It contains the highest elevations in the world including 8,848 metres (29,029 ft) height Mount Everest (Sagarmāthā in Nepali) on the border with China. Seven other of the world's "eight-thousanders" are in Nepal or on its border with China: Lhotse, Makalu, Cho Oyu, Kangchenjunga,Dhaulagiri, Annapurna and Manaslu.

Climate
Nepal has five climatic zones, broadly corresponding to the altitudes. The tropical and subtropical zones lie below 1,200 metres (3,937 ft), the temperate zone 1,200 to 2,400 metres (3,937 to 7,874 ft), the cold zone 2,400 to 3,600 metres (7,874 to 11,811 ft), the subarctic zone 3,600 to 4,400 metres (11,811 to 14,436 ft), and the Arctic zone above 4,400 metres (14,436 ft).

Nepal experiences five seasons: summer, monsoon, autumn, winter and spring. The Himalaya blocks cold winds from Central Asia in the winter and forms the northern limit of the monsoon wind patterns. In a land once thickly forested, deforestation is a major problem in all regions, with resulting erosion and degradation of ecosystems.

Nepal is popular for mountaineering, having some of the highest and most challenging mountains in the world, includingMount Everest. Technically, the south-east ridge on the Nepali side of the mountain is easier to climb; so, most climbers prefer to trek to Everest through Nepal.

The highest mountains in Nepal are given here:
MountainHeightSectionLocation
Mount Everest(Highest)8,848 m29,029 ftKhumbuMahalangur    Khumjung VDC, Solukhumbu DistrictSagarmatha Zone ( Nepal ChinaBorder)
Kangchenjunga (3rd highest)8,586 m28,169 ftNorthern Kanchenjunga    Lelep VDC / Yamphudin VDC, Taplejung DistrictMechi Zone ( Nepal SikkimBorder)
Lhotse (4th highest)8,516 m27,940 ftEverest Group    Khumjung VDC, Solukhumbu DistrictSagarmatha Zone ( Nepal ChinaBorder)
Makalu (5th highest)8,462 m27,762 ftMakalu Mahalangur    Makalu VDC, Sankhuwasabha DistrictKosi Zone ( Nepal China Border)
Cho Oyu (6th highest)8,201 m26,906 ftKhumbu Mahalangur    Khumjung VDC, Solukhumbu DistrictSagarmatha Zone ( Nepal ChinaBorder)
Dhaulagiri (7th highest)8,167 m26,795 ftDhaulagiri    Mudi VDC / Kuinemangale VDC, Myagdi DistrictDhawalagiri Zone
Manaslu (8th highest)8,156 m26,759 ftMansiri    Samagaun VDC, Gorkha District / Dharapani VDC, Manang DistrictGandaki Zone
Annapurna (10th highest)8,091 m26,545 ftAnnapurna    Ghandruk VDC, Kaski DistrictGandaki Zone / Narchyang VDC, Myagdi DistrictDhawalagiri Zone

Geology


The collision between the Indian subcontinent and Eurasia, which started in Paleogene time and continues today, produced the Himalaya and the Tibetan Plateau. Nepal lies completely within this collision zone, occupying the central sector of the Himalayan arc, nearly one third of the 2,400 km (1,500 mi)-long Himalayas.

The Indian plate continues to move north relative to Asia at the rate of approximately 50 mm (2.0 in) per year.This is approximately twice the speed at which human fingernails grow, which is very fast given the size of the blocks of Earth's crust involved.[original research?] As the strong Indian continental crust subducts beneath the relatively weak Tibetan crust, it pushes up the Himalayan Mountains. This collision zone has accommodated huge amounts of crustal shortening as the rock sequences slide one over another.

Based on a study published in 2014, of the Main Frontal Thrust, on average a great earthquake occurs every 750 ± 140 and 870 ± 350 years in the east Nepal region.[70] A study from 2015 found a 700-year delay between earthquakes in the region. The study also suggests, that because of tectonic stress transfer, the earthquake from 1934 in Nepal and the 2015 earthquake are connected - following a historic earthquake pattern.

Erosion of the Himalayas is a very important source of sediment, which flows via several great rivers: the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra River systems to the Indian Ocean.

Environment
The dramatic differences in elevation found in Nepal result in a variety of biomes, from tropical savannas along the Indian border, to subtropical broadleaf and coniferous forestsin the Hill Region, to temperate broadleaf and coniferous forests on the slopes of the Himalaya, to montane grasslands and shrublands and rock and ice at the highest elevations.

At the lowest elevations is the Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands ecoregion. These form a mosaic with the Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests, which occur from 500 to 1,000 metres (1,600 to 3,300 ft) and include the Inner Terai Valleys. Himalayan subtropical pine forests occur between 1,000 and 2,000 metres (3,300 and 6,600 ft).

Above these elevations, the biogeography of Nepal is generally divided from east to west by the Gandaki River. Ecoregions to the east tend to receive more precipitation and to be more species-rich. Those to the west are drier with fewer species.

From 1,500 to 3,000 metres (4,900 to 9,800 ft), are temperate broadleaf forests: the eastern and western Himalayan broadleaf forests. From 3,000 to 4,000 metres (9,800 to 13,100 ft) are the eastern and western Himalayan subalpine conifer forests. To 5,500 metres (18,000 ft) are the eastern and western Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows.

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